We will use the term "Company" for both CROs and Pharmaceuticals. The following Situation chart shows a cross-section of BIO outsourced services to contract research organizations (CROs) and pharmaceuticals:

The Company requires complex statistical analysis and does not have staff solidly trained in that area.    
The Company requires a simple statistical analysis and needs verification of its results by an external source, particularly in important cases.
The CRO wishes, as a value-added service, to send data to its clients, along with all conclusions and processed statistical analysis. Though the client can analyze such information, sometimes they are interested in an outside validation.    
The Statistical Analysis department of the Company carries a high cost burden for its work, which is a typical situation of Corporate America or Europe. Additionally, we are aware that large organizations usually allocate costs between departments or divisions.    
The CRO needs the statisticians to accompany them to meetings with clients, but Statistical Analysis personnel cannot travel, or carry a high travel cost.      
The Company’s Statistical Analysis department has a large backlog of work or has a sudden rise in demand for high-priority studies.
CRO clients require Statistical Analysis and/or Databases and due to internal policies, the CRO does not allocate its own human resources to those services. In these cases, the CRO asks us for preferential pricing for its customers. In our proposal, we will specify that the applied discount was recommended by the CRO; otherwise the customer would see our normal costs only.    
Some Pharmaceuticals may have a strong Statistic al Analysis department, but may want an external validation or independent comparison between some of its products and those of a rival company.